England

England From 1835 through 1840

Historically

1835 – The Municipal Corporation Act revolutionizes borough government
1835 – Sir George S. White, Field Marshal in Boer War (defender of Ladysmith) born (d. 1912)
1836 – The People’s Charter initiates the first national working-class movement.  Chartism demands universal suffrage and vote by ballot.
1836 – Joseph Chamberlain, statesman, born (d. 1914)
1836 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Liberal statesman, born (d. 1908)
1837 – William IV, King of Great Britain, died (b. 1765).  His death terminates personal union between Great Britain and Hanover.
1837 – Mazzini arrives in London as an exile
1837 – Victoria (1819-1901) becomes Queen of Great Britain
1837 – Benjamin Disraeli delivers his maiden speech in the House of Commons
1838 – Coronation of Queen Victoria
1838 – First British-Afghan War began (ended in 1842)
1838 – Anti-Corn Law League established in Manchester by Richard Cobden and his friends
1838 – Sir Eveln Wood, first British Sirdar of Egyptian army, Born (d. 1919)
1839 – Treaty of London settles the dispute between the Dutch and their former Belgian subjects
1839 – Outbreak of First Opium War between Britain and China (ended in 1842)
1840 – Queen Victoria of Great Britain marries Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha
1840 – London Conference on Turko-Egyptian conflict signs the Protocol des Droits; straits closed to warships of all powers, Black Sea to Russian warships
1840 – Sir W.S. Smith, Admiral in Napoleonic wars, died (b. 1755)

Literature and Theater

1835 – Alfred Austin, poet laureate, born (d. 1913)
1835 – Samuel Butler, novelist and critic born (d. 1902)
1835 – William Cobett, man of letters, died (b. 1762)
1835 – Charles Mathews, comedian, died (b. 1776)
1836 – Sir Walter Besant, novelist, born (d. 1901)
1836 – Sir Francis Burnand, dramatist and editor of “Punch,” born (d. 1917)
1836 – W.S. Gilbert, librettist and satirist, born (d. 1911)
1836 – William Godwin, novelist and philosopher, died (b. 1756)
1837 – Mary Elizabeth Braddon, best selling novelist, born (d. 1915)
1837 – Algernon Charles Swinburne, poet, born (d. 1909)
1837 – Sir Charles Wyndham, actor and theatrical manager, born (d. 1919)
1838 – Bulwer-Lytton:  “The Lady of Lyons,” London, Covent Garden
1838 – Henry Irving, actor, born (d. 1905)
1838 – Thomas Creevey, diarist and gossip, died (b. 1768)
1839 – William De Morgan, novelist, born (d. 1917)
1839 – Ouida (Louise de la Bamee), novelist, born (d. 1908)
1839 – Walter Pater, critic and essayist, born (d. 1894)
1839 – W.M. Praed, poet of light and satirical verse, died (b. 1802)
1840 – Wilfred S. Blunt, poet and traveler, born (d. 1922)
1840 – Rhoda Broughton, novelist, born (d. 1920)
1840 – Fanny Burney novelist (“Evelina”), died (b. 1752)
1840 – Austin Dobson, man of letters, born (d. 1921)
1840 – Thomas Hardy, novelist and poet, born (d. 1928)
1840 – John Addington Symonds, poet and essayist, born (d. 1893)

Music

1837 – John Field, pianist and composer, died (b. 1782)

Daily Life

1835 – Samuel Cost (1814) takes out English patent for his single-barreled pistol and rifle
1835 – “Lacock Abbey, Wiltshire,” the earliest negative photograph, taken by William Henry Fox Talbot (1800-1877)
1836 – The first cricket match, North versus South, played in London
1837 – Official birth registration introduced
1837 – Mrs. Fitzherbert, morganatic wife of King George IV, died (b. 1756)
1837 – Isaac Pitman (1813-1897), teacher, publishes his manual, “Stenographic Soundhand”
1837 – Records of the 11-mile 220-yard Crick Run Race at Rugby School, Warwickshire, England, begun
1838 – 703-ton steamer “Sirius” sailed with 100 passengers from London to New York and within a few hours of her arrival, the 1,440-ton steamer “Great Western” arrived after a crossing of 15 days from Bristol.
1838 – Octavia Hill, English housing reformer, born (d. 1912)
1838 – Great Britain had 90 ships of the line in her Navy
1838 – The first traveling post office began; it runs between Birmingham and Liverpool.
1839 – George Cadbury, chocolate manufacturer and social reformer, born (d. 1922)
1839 – Samuel Cunard (1787-1865) starts, with his partners, the British and North-American Royal Mail Steam Packet Company (later known as Cunard Line)
1839 – First Grand National run at Aintree, England
1839 – Lady Hester Stanhope, eccentric who settled among the Druses of Lebanon, died (b. 1776)
1839 – W.H. Fox Talbot (1800-1877) claims that he obtained successes with his photographic experiments before Daguerre and communicates the results to the Royal Society
1840 – Beau Brummell (George Bryan Brummell), man of fashion and wit, died (b. 1778)
1840 – Blue Riband for the fastest crossing of the Atlantic awarded to S.S. “Britannia”
1840 – Botanical Gardens at Kew, London, opened
1840 – Transportaton of criminals from England to New South Wales comes to end
1840 – Penny postage established in Great Britain
1840 – 1,331 miles of railroad in operation
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