France


France From 1620 To 1750

Historically

1620 – Revolt of French nobles against Louis XIII; Richelieu makes peace, reconciling the Queen Mother to her son
1620 – Massacre of Protestants in the Valtelline
1621 – Huguenot rebellion against Louis XIII
1622 – Richelieu recalled by Louis XIII to the Council; created Cardinal
1662 – Treaty of Montpellier ends rebellion of the Huguenots
1624 – Cardinal Richelieu made first minister of France (-1642)
1625 – French occupy the Antilles and Cayenne
1626 – Peace of La Rochelle between Huguenots and French crown
1626 – Treaty of Monzon between France and Spain confirms independence of the Grisons
1626 – Richelieu suppresses Chalais conspiracy, concentrating all political power in France in his own hands
1627 – Huguenots rise again; George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, sails from Portsmouth with a fleet to aid them in defense of La Rochelle; failing to relieve them, he retires
1627 – Richelieu signs treaty with Spain
1628 – La Rochelle capitulates to French crown
1629 – Peace of Susa ends war between England and France
1629 – Peace of Alais ends Huguenot revolt
1629 – Commercial treaty signed between Russia and France
1630 – “Day of Dupes” – Richelieu overthrows conspiracy of Maria de’Medici, the Queen Mother
1631 – Maria de’Medici exiled to Brussels, joining forces with her son Gaston, Duke of Orleans, to bring about Richelieu’s fall
1633 – French army occupies Lorraine (-1659)
1635 – Franco-Swedish treaty of alliance signed by Richelieu and Oxtenstierna
1635 – Treaty of St. Germain-en-Laye agrees on regular French subsidies to the army of Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar
1636 – Prince Octavio Piccolomini invades and is repulsed
1638 – Berhnard of Saxe-Weimar takes Freiburg, defeats Duke of Lorraine at Sennheim, and conquers Breisach
1638 – The future Louis XIV born (d. 1715)
1638 – Franco-Swedish alliance renewed for three years
1640 – French finish occupation of Alsace
1641 – Comte de Soissons’ conspiracy against King Louis XIII
1642 – Cardinal Richelieu dies (b. 1585); succeeded as first minister the by Italian-born Cardinal Mazarin
1643 – Louis XIII of France dies; succeeded by his five-year-old son Louis XIV (-1715
1643 – Anne of Austria, the Queen Mother, invested with supreme power, confirms Mazarin as first minister
1643 – Austro-Bavarian army defeats Franch at Duttlingen
1644 – French occupation of the Rhineland
1645 – Peace talks open between Holy Roman Empire and France at Munster and Osnabruck
1648 – Outbreak of the Fronde in France
1649 – War of the Fronde begins in France; the Court leaves Paris
1649 – Treaty of Ruel ends first Fronde;  Court returns after treaty has been signed
1650 – Mazarin allies himself with leaders of the first Fronde, imprisoning leaders of second Fronde
1651 – Parlement votes for release of Conde, Fronde leader; Mazarin forced to leave Paris; the queen forced to ally herself with the Fronde against him
1651 – King Louis XIV attains majority
1652 – Provisional Fronde government set up in Paris
1652 – Louis XIV reestablishes lawful government, recalling Mazarin
1653 – End of Fronde
1654 – Corronation of Louis XIV at Rheims
1659 – Peace of the Pyrenees between France and Spain
1660 – Louis XIV of France marries maria Teresa, Infanta of Spain
1661 – Cardinal Mazarin dies; Louis XIV begins his personal rule
1661 – Philip, Duke of Orleans, marries Henrietta, sister of Charles II
1661 – Jean Baptiste Colbert (1619-1683) becomes Minister of Finance (-1683); revenue shows deficit of 22 million francs
1662 – Charles II sells Dunkirk to France for £ 400,000
1664 – Alliance between France and Brandenburg
1666 – France and the Dutch declare war on England
1666 – French capture Antigua, Montserrat, and St. Christopher
1667 – Secret treaty between Louis XIV and Charles II against Spain
1667 – War of Devolution begins as troops invade Netherlands
1667 – Anne of Austria, mother of Louis XIV, dies (b. 1602)
1667 – Peace of Breda between the Dutch, France, and England
1668 – Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle ends War of Devolution between France and Spain
1668 – Treaty between Louis XIV and Leopold I concerning future partition of Spanish realms
1670 – Defensive alliance between France and Bavaria
1670 – Treaty of Dover bertween England and France
1670 – France occupies Lorraine
1671 – Philip of Orleans, brother of Louis XIV, marries Princess Liselotte, heiress to the Palatinate
1672 – France declares war on the Dutch; army crosses Rhine; Louis XIV rejects Dutch peace offer
1673 – After preliminary peace between Brandenburg and France the “Great Elector” promises, in Treaty of Vossen, not to support any enemies of Louis XIV
1673 – Emperor Leopold I declares war on France
1673 – Expedition against Ceylon
1675 – Alliance between France and Poland
1675 – Charles II of England receives 500,000 crowns from Louis XIV and is able to prorogue English Parliament for 15 months
1677 – Duke or Orleans defeats Dutch at Cassel
1678 – Peace of Jijmegen between France and the Dutch
1678 – Peace of Jijmegen between France and Spain
1679 – Peace of Jijmegen between Louis XIV and Leopold I
1679 – King Charles II of Spain marries Marie Louise of Orleans
1680 – Colonial empire, reaching from Quebec to mouth of Mississippi River, is organized
1681 – Defensive alliances between Brandenburg and France
1682 – La Salle claims Louisianna territory for France and takes possession of Mississippi Valley
1683 – Spain declares war on France
1684 – Louis XIV, after death of Queen Maria Theresa, marries Mme. de Maintenon
1685 – Charles, the Elector Palatinate, dies; electorate claimed by Louis XIV for his sister-in-law Liselotte
1686 – League of Augsburg against Louis XIV
1686 – Charles, Duke of Lorraine, takes Buda from Turks, who held it for 145 years
1686 – French annex Madagascar
1688 – War between France and the Empire; Louis XIV invades Palatinate and takes Heidelberg
1688 – King James II escapes to France (d. at Varsailles, 1701)
1689 – Louis XIV declares war on Great Britain
16j89 – French burn Baden-Baden
1690 – Spain joins Great Alliance against France
1693 – French sack Heildelberg for second time
1693 – Battle of Lagos; French defeat English merchant fleet
1693 – Louis XIV begins his peace policy, reconciliation with the Vatican
1696 – William III campaigning in Holland against French
1697 – French under Andre de Brue attempt to colonize West Africa
1700 – King Charles II of Spain dies; end of the Spanish Hapsburgs; Philip V, grandson of Louis XIV, heir to throne
1701 – Prince Eugene defeats French at Carpi and Chiara
James II of England dies; Louis XIV recognizes the “Old Pretender,” James Edward, son of James II, as King James III
1702 – Rebellion of Protestant peasants, “Camisards,” in Cevennes
1703 – Marie Leszczynska, future Queen Consort of Louis XV of France, born (d. 1768)
1706 – Prince Eugene defeats French at Turin
1708 – “Old Pretender” arrives at Firth of Forth; returns four days later to France
1708 – Marlborough and Prince Eugene defeat French at Oudenarde
1709 – Marlborough (“The Butcher”) and Prince Eugene take Tournai, defeat French at Malplaquet, and conquer Mons
1710 – Future Louis XV, King of France, born (d. 1774)
1710 – Mauritius, formerly part of Dutch East Indies, becomes French
1711 – The Dauphin dies; within one year his heir, the Duke of Burgundy, the Duchess, and their eldest son also die
1711 – Rio de Janeiro captured by French
1714 – Peace of Baden:  France keeps Strasbourg and Alsace
1715 – Louis XIV of France dies; succeeded by his great-grandson (at 5) Louis XV (-1774) under regency of the Duc d’Orleans
1716 – James III, the “Old Pretender,” leaves Great Britain, lands in France
1717 – James III, the “Old Pretender,” forced to leave France
1717 – Peter the Great in Paris
1718 – Quadruple Alliance signed by France, the Empire, England, and Holland
1719 – France declares war on Spain
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